The first adult day of the LA Congress began with a short opening ceremony in the arena for the 6,000 Catholic RE teachers attending the conference. After prayer, the head of RE in the LA Diocese Fr. Christopher Bazyouros welcomed us and introduced the theme of the 2018 congress Rise Up! To be free from our tombs, as Jesus freed Lazarus in the Gospel reading from the Sunday liturgy reminded us. Fr Christopher reminded us of the time Jesus also spent in the tomb, something we sometimes forget, but that he rose up and through Him, so shall we.
You can watch the opening ceremony below.
My first workshop session of the day was with rockstar priest Fr Mike Schmitz who is a university minister and speaker and most known for the Youtube videos he makes for Ascension Press.
This was a terrific presentation on how we should be praying the Mass. We often lap into general apathy and passivity in the Mass, where we go through the motions without much thought as to our participation as Kingdom Priests. He reminded us that worship doesn’t need to be entertaining or personally fulfilling, as the worship is about God, not about our own personal gratification. At the heart of worship is sacrifice and we need to come to the Mass to offer to God our own sacrifices. But what does this mean? It means we need to offer up the best of us… and the worst of us… This was a great reminder of the purpose of the Mass and our role as members of the Body of Christ in participating in the Mass. We managed to meet Fr Mike briefly after his session. He was very generous with his time and a very humble man.
My next session was with international speaker Sherry Weddell from the Catherine of Siena Institute, an organisation designed to form lay missionary disciples in parishes. She is probably best known for her books Forming Intentional Disciples and Becoming a Parish of Intentional Disciples.
She spoke of the importance of moving through the stages of discipleship from being a Seeker to a Disciple and then finally becoming an Apostle who knows his or her vocation and is sent out into the world to fulfill the Church’s mission.
Most of our parishioners are very much still seekers, and very few members of our parishes are apostles. Sherry reminded us that this is a process and a journey and that our focus cannot rest solely on building a Catholic Identity as this is not the same as discipleship.
She also spoke of the fact that the fruit of our work will bear more fruit, which in turn will bear more fruit. The other big takeaway from this session was that rather than focusing on our institutions, we need to focus on leading more to discipleship. If we have more disciples, the institutions will take care of themselves. This made me think that we need to work even more to evangelise the parents of our students, through the children.
My final session was from Dr Leonard De Lorenzo, a theologian from Notre Dame on how Mary shows us the way to be Missionary Disciples.
This was a dense lecture but incredibly rich! Dr Leonard reminded us if the importance of encounter and accompaniment as in the story of the Road to Emmaus. But what does accompaniment look like? He reminded us of the nature of the men in this story. They were disoriented – they were leaving the city. They were confused about the events that had occured. They were chatty – they were talking together. They were scared – they were not sure where they can find hope. Does this not sound like our young people today?
Dr Lorenzo reminded us that we need to both Hear and to Act. He aligned the Emmaus narrative to that of Mary’s story in the Annunciation. He compared Mary’s Fiat with the response of Zechariah. Mary’s Yes was conforming herself to God’s plan, while Zechariah wants to form God’s plan around his context. We also see the importance of deep listening in the other infancy narratives in the Gospels in the story of the Presentation in the Temple and Finding Jesus in the Temple.
Our day ended with an African American cultural Mass. This was a very rich display or colour, movement and call-and-response. The music was bright and the pastor was incredibly energetic. It was a very special liturgy!
Our first congress day was the Thursday Youth Day. This was an amazing experience with 13, 000 teenagers from across the USA converging on Anaheim for a day of praise, worship and learning about their faith.
Started commenced the day with Mass celebrated by LA Archbishop Gomez in the main Arena with 6,000 students and their teachers. The Theme of the day was Dare to Believe, which was the focus of Archbishop Gomez’ homily (below).
He challenged the youth to bear witness to Christ and to work hard to be a saint and to recognise those things that take us away from God. He also spoke of the witness of Venerable Madeleine Debrel a French woman who left her faith but returned to a relationship with Christ through prayer, daring to believe.
The liturgy was beautiful with the music and liturgical movement led by the youth who did an amazing job!
The keynote of the morning was from Katie Prejean McGrady, a young on fire speaker who gave a testimony to the challenges she experienced as a young woman and the graced she received through developing her relationship with God. One key takeaway from her session was the importance of praying through the difficulties we experience. She was a terrific storyteller and a wonderful role model for the students there. She spoke of having a daring faith, of bravely stepping out of the boat like Peter did to walk on water water with Christ.
My next session was with Jesse Manibusen, a vibrant evangelist and musician. He is a larger than life figure who presents a striking image in his smiley face tee shirt and guitar.
Jesse’s message was of living a life of meaning by believing deeply. Between songs he spoke of rejecting the apathy that we often lapse into and reminded us that we don’t go to church, but that we are the Church.
My final session was with Joe Melendrez a young school-based Catholic hip-hop artist and speaker and founder of God Swag Apparel, a company dedicated to having youth wear their faith literally on their sleeve.
Joe’s session Mark My Words was a high intensity mix of music, dance, singing and personal testimony. He spoke of the power of words to build people up and to tear people down and the importance of witnessing to the truth through our words. The highlight of his session was his performance with Fr Rob Galea, an early look at an upcoming collaboration between the two performers.
One of my key learnings from the day was the difference between the USA and Australia in terms of religious education. The majority of groups attending the youth day were parish-based, rather than school-based, with their leaders being the parish catechists, who are often volunteers for Saturday morning Catechesis. For many students, attendance at the youth day was a compulsory aspect of their Confirmation preparation program. The Sacrament of Confirmation is offered much later in the USA, with children confirmed in their mid teen years. This highlighted the importance of ensuring students maintain their engagement with their faith and their local parish. This is particularly important with the age children begin distancing themselves from their faith becoming lower and lower.
The Youth Day would be a terrific experience for some of our CSYMA students to attend along with perhaps some of our Youth Ministry Officers.
While I have visited a number of charter schools in the United States, this was my first visit to a Catholic school. St Pius X St Matthias was unusual in that is was an amalgamation of two schools.
St Pius X was a coeducational school operating from 1953-1998. When the girls school St Matthias High School was facing challenges, this was amalgamated wit St Pius, with the boys fazed out over four years to become a single-sex girls school again. The merger was met with great protest from students, parents and staff, with students arranging a protest walkout in February 1995.
Since then, under the leadership of President Eric Rubalcava and Principal Veronica Zozaya, the school has undertaken a significant campaign to unite not only their current students, but their old-students network, to ensure the school has a strong Catholic identity into the future.
This school is identifiably catholic from the moment you are ‘buzzed-in’ to the administration building. The foyer (seen below) is a testament to this and Catholic imagery adorned the walls of all the halls and classrooms and statues of the Saints were visible everywhere on the grounds.
One special tradition that the school has developed was the keeping of s ship’s bell in their school chapel, which they saw as the heart of their school. Students were encouraged to enter the chapel and to ring the bell if they were encountering a difficult time. The peal of the bell was a calling to other students who may be around to find them in the chapel and to pray for them.
The day we visited marked one month since the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting in Parkland Florida. Students across the country were preparing to walk out of school on this day to voice their protests over the growing gun related violence in US schools. the Students of St Pius X St Matthias were no exception but rather than staging a walkout the students and teachers collaborated to have a day to hear their students voices and to act. Students gathered to pray for the victims and then spent time engaging in activities such as writing letters to the families of the victims of the shooting, writing to their government representatives calling for action or making posters for the larger protest march taking place later in the month. It was heartwarming to see the school united by their shared Catholic values in the face of such a tragedy and acting to promote positive social change.
Despite the excellent work the school is doing, it is not without its challenges. The school is still trying hard to build its identity and to re engage their families and their network of past students in the face of poverty and the impact of gang violence. Through their motto (seen below) is ‘Recognise Your Significance; Seize Your Opportunities’, the teachers are trying to build a positive identity for their students by helping them to realise that they are created in the image and likeness of God and that they have limitless potential.
Funding in US Catholic schools is a huge challenge. The School is a diocesan school, but receives no funding from the state or federal government, except for students with additional needs. Subsequently, the schools are funded entirely from the school fees and often require support from the Archdiocese. The school fees are around $8,000 per year but the majority of students are on partial payment plans. The teachers are also paid substantially less in the Catholic system. Teaching in a Catholic school is clearly seen as a calling and teachers are committed to their faith and to witnessing it to their students. This particular challenge is what led to the creation of the role of the President of the academy. Eric’s role is now to reach out to the community to find philanthropic organisations and individuals who might be interested in offering financial support for the school. This made me particularly thankful for the financial stability we enjoy as Australian Catholic schools.
Before we left, we spent some time in their school chapel before the Blessed Sacrament to pray for the the students, teachers and family members of the St Pius X St Matthias community. It was an excellent school and it was a privilege visiting them for the day.
Before we head to the LA RE Congress on Thursday, we visited Homeboys Industries in Downtown LA.
Homeboy Industries is an apostolate designed to allow former gang members and incarcerated men and women to have a fresh start. Each year, they support over 10,000 men and women with legal assistance, employment in their bakery and cafe, study opportunities and even tattoo removal!
Reoffending rates in this region is incredibly high and the gang culture has captured many young men and women, drawing them into a cycle of recidivism. As our 24 year old tour guide Jason explained “Before Homeboy, I was either heading to gaol for life or going to die in the street”.
Jason talked to us of his experiences as a 12 year old, dragged into the gang culture at 12 when his mother passed away, followed buy his grandmother a month later. He explained how he sold drugs and guns, robbed people regularly and was shot at almost daily.
For Jason, in 2015 marked the year of his transformation. He watched his best friend die from a gunshot wound on the street across from his house. Shortly after, his brother was the innocent victim in a gangland fight.
Fr Greg Boyle, a Jesuit priest and founder of Homeboy Industries attended Jason’s brother’s funeral and suggested that Jason come in and see him. It took time for Jason to be ready to take this step but when he did he found a new family and new role models. Jason is now attending college and is looking for employment beyond Homeboy Industries. He has even had the opportunity to study at Oxford in the UK.
Fr Greg Boyle SJ – Founder of Homeboy Industries
This visit really provided an opportunity for me to reflect on the how lucky we are to live in a relatively safe part of the world, unaffected by the challenges these young men and women face to survive on the streets of LA. It made me think of those marginalised members of our own community, particularly single mothers who are struggling, and what we can do to provide them with love, dignity, family and opportunities to grow.
I’m spending the next week or so in LA for the LA RE Congress, one of the biggest RE congresses in the world. While the congress doesn’t start until later in the week, I thought I would blog a bit about my experiences in LA so far.
The flight over was one of those mythical flights that friends tell you about. The plane was virtually empty and everyone had a row to themselves. A miracle! Consequently, I actually slept pretty well and arrive in LA feeling pretty good!
The first day we came together as a group to discuss logistics and, more importantly, to share the projects that we will implement as a result of our experiences at the congress. The ideas were many and varied, but the central theme seemed to be engaging our sometimes disengaged RE students and helping them to come to know Christ in what is an increasingly secular world.
We then ventured to Our Lady of the Angels Cathedral in downtown LA for midday Mass. The Cathedral is a contemporary masterpiece of architecture. Designed by Prof. José Rafael Moneo and built in 2002, the cathedral is flooded with natural light, space and with an ambulatory that takes visitors on a pilgrimage around the nave. One of the most striking features of the cathedral was the tapestries that adorned the walls. Above the baptismal font, a subdued image of John baptising Christ appears. Along the walls of the nave are tapestries of saints interspersed with young men and women, symbolising the whole mystical body of the church.
The Mass was well attended, beautifully sung and with an excellent homily from Fr David Gallardo. It was a very moving experience.
Rest day tomorrow, looking forward to visiting some local schools on Thursday!
I was recently spent a day working with a school on Flipped Learning and Project Based Learning. In the second session of the day I was asked to run a session to help teachers with little or no understanding of PBL to have somewhat of an understanding of the broad strokes of the approach.
For teachers to really ‘get it’ the session really needed to model PBL, as much as possible in such a short time frame. I’d done this in PBL Project Design workshops over two days before and have used a day-long problem to model Problem Based Learning, but the catch with this session was that we only had one hour together!
Some brainstorming with a recent colleague Gavin Hays (if you don’t follow him on Twitter, you really should at @gavhays) and we had a solid foundation for something that would serve as an intro to PBL for the uninitiated in one hour or less!
I’ll link all the resources I used below and a list of the contents in the mystery box.
With only an hour together, I really wanted these teachers to experience a modified form of PBL from the students point of view. This was an immersion into the processes of PBL without a true grounding in the specifics. With the short time, I needed to be clear on what I wanted them to take away and what were experiences I was willing to leave out due to time pressures. Here is what I came up with:
Sustained Inquiry – with not enough time to do this justice, it was left out.
Group Norming and Contracts – again not enough time to do this justice I’m afraid.
There were also some non-negotiables that I knew I wanted the teachers to experience. This list was very long, which would make this a bit of a challenge.
Learning – This should ALWAYS be the goal! I really wanted them to leave with some tangible learnings from the immersion experience, so they could see that their students could learn this way too.
Minimal teacher-led work – the last thing I wanted was for them to listen to me for any more than 5 minutes.
Presentation – Teachers needed to experience what it is like to present in front of their colleagues.
Time Pressure – I hoped they would feel the slight pinch that comes with meeting a deadline.
Group Work – Even in the hour, I hoped that they would experience the excitement and challenge of completing a task which was impossible for them to do on their own in the same time.
The Importance of a Marking Guidelines – they needed to see how these helped to guide students towards their end products (more on this later…)
Learning the Language of PBL – I hoped that this might be a good introduction to the PBL vernacular. The language of PBL is what helps to demystify the learning process for our students
Fun! – The immersion needed to be a fun experience
The Sustainable House Project
The Entry Event…
The context for the project immersion was the European Solar Decathlon for 2017. This is a real-world event where university students work together in teams to design sustainable houses. The challenge was to design a model to be submitted for consideration for entry into 2017s Solar Decathlon. I borrowed from their video to make the short entry event video below:
This context was a good idea from Gavin as most teachers have at least some prior knowledge around sustainability in housing. This would at least get us started when working through the knows and needs to knows.
The Driving Question…
This was designed to provide some clear parameters for the teachers to work in as well as providing some needs to know for them to work towards.
After showing the Entry Event, introducing the Driving Question and a short discussion, our teachers were placed into teams, given their marking rubrics, mystery boxes. In lieu of research, I provided each group with some infographics on sustainability and house design to draw ideas and inspiration from. We then put 5 minutes on the clock for teams to work on their know and needs to know lists.
The Rubrics… A curve ball…
It was so important for the teachers to see how close reference to the marking rubric can help to guide students to better end products. To highlight this more effectively in the short time we had together, the teachers were thrown a curve ball…
Of the 6 groups, 2 groups received a rubric focused on the content knowledge displayed and the execution of the model:
Another 2 groups received a rubric focused on presentation and critical thinking.
The final group were not provided with a rubric at all. I hoped to see whether the lack of guidance had an impact on their project work…
Some Guidance with Group Work…
While we didn’t have time to formalise group roles or to collaboratively design group contracts, I still wanted the teachers to be mindful of their group roles. I referred the groups to the slide below and suggested a couple minutes should be spent developing a plan of attack.
Project Development Time
I then put just 35 minutes on the clock! Needless to say this time limitation created a strong sense of urgency among the participants!
I spend my time working my way between the groups. Questioning rationales and design approaches, asking about role responsibilities, challenging hypothesise, redirecting groups back to the Driving Question and asking them to reflect on how their progression towards the End Product was being reflected in the elements of the rubric.
The time went very, very quickly! Below is a snapshot of the teachers working on their End Products.
With about 5 minutes left on the clock, I suggested that team prepared for their presentation and reminded them of the expectation that all group members be involved in presenting their models.
Below you can see the slide which was the focus for the presentations.
Groups presented in round robin style, to save time. We only had 5 minutes for each presentation, including 2 minutes of critical friends feedback in the form of likes and wonders.
For the presentation, feedback was focused on the dot points of the rubric and for this I have all participants the full rubric.
The session, despite being a bit rushed, I think met the design intention. While the participants were by no means ready to start introducing PBL into their own classes at this point, they had at least experienced a taster of PBL so that they could better understand the work their PBL colleagues were undertaking in their classes. The feedback from the experienced PBL teachers who were also engaged in the session was that they also gained something from the experience and were reminded of some practices in facilitation that they may have been neglecting.
Interestingly, at least in my observation, those teachers who did have the rubric focused on model design and content (and who actually used it!) were a little more ‘tight’ in terms of how they approached the End Product. Similarly, those groups who had the communication rubric were much more polished in terms of their presentation than those groups without it, or those with the content focused rubric. This was interesting to unpack with the participants at the end of the session.
The session was a lot of fun to facilitate and I’d love to hear how you think it might be able to be improved! Leave your comments below.
This post was written following a presentation given at Clickview Australia’s first Flipped Learning Round Table on October 7 2016.
The post will likely also appear on the Clickview blog.
At Parramatta Marist High School, we have undertaken a significant program of pedagogy change over the past decade. While the focus for our junior students has predominantly been Project Based Learning (PBL), we have moved towards models of Problem Based Learning (PrBL) and Flipped Learning for our senior students. In 2013, we undertook a whole-school shift to Flipped Learning for our Year 12 HSC students. Every lesson in every subject throughout the HSC is flipped. This was a significant undertaking and one that taught us numerous lessons as we refined our practice. 2016 saw us introduce a hybridised Flipped/Problem Based Learning approach for our Year 11 Preliminary HSC students. This model aimed to address some of the limitations of our One Day One Problem approach, modelled on that pioneered at Republic Polytechnic, Singapore allowing students to go deeper with the content when solving the problem. Parramatta Marist High has seen some significant improvements in one measure of academic success, the HSC examination, over the past 10 years of implementing a variety of pedagogy changes. While it is very difficult to attribute the improvement we can see to one particular school-based intervention, we can make some generalisations regarding the impact of some of these changes. Finally, our school formed a partnership with Erasmus University, Rotterdam and four of our teachers have commenced doctoral studies under Prof. Henk G Schmidt, a world authority in pedagogy, particularly in PBL. One of the focus areas for our research has been to construct and determine the reliability and validity of an instrument to measure student perception of the Flipped Classroom.
Scaling the Flipped Classroom as a Whole-School HSC Approach
We introduced a whole-school Flipped Classroom approach for our HSC students in 2013 in order to buy back class time for our students to engage in inquiry and to apply their content to better prepare them for the rigours of the HSC examination. Our students were also calling for a change as they had experienced three years of student-centred pedagogies. Surveys indicated that they were not engaged by the very teacher-centred traditional approach most HSC teachers had adopted in order to meet the content demands of the HSC. This shift was a challenge, as we needed to develop a model that promoted consistency across and within subjects whilst also respecting the professionalism of our teachers, allowing them to determine how the approach was adopted in their classes. Below are some reflections of what we felt are some of our key learnings from four years of scaling the HSC.
The importance of applying content prior to the lesson
In our first year of implementation, in order to determine whether students had engaged with the pre-learning material, students were generally required to ask questions or to make generic notes. While this was a suitable accountability measure to ensure that students had engaged with the content, we found that their comprehension was still rather limited. We have now moved to a model where students generally answer questions based on the pre-learning material. While these questions are generally framed at the lower end of Bloom’s taxonomy, they still ensure that students are actively engaged in their learning and that deeper thinking is taking place. Student responses are generally collected electronically, affording the teacher the opportunity to read them prior to class and providing opportunities for the teacher to modify the focus of the lesson and to plan for differentiation.
Our original shift towards a scaled Flipped Classroom model was conducted hastily and did not allows us time to plan our video resource creation as carefully as we would have liked. Many of our original video resources were designed around whole syllabus dot points, or around all of the content addressed in a specific lesson. As such, the majority of our videos were over 15 minutes long. Student engagement surveys were used to determine student perceptions of the videos and the length was a factor that students identified was impacting on their engagement. This was supported by the work from Phillip Guo et.al who investigated video watching habits of MOOC participants. We determined that, within our context, videos should really not be any longer than six minutes long. This led us to produce videos that were focused on maintaining their brevity and which were based more around single concepts and ideas, rather than broader topic overviews.
Curating or creating videos
With a scaled approach to Flipped Learning, incorporating all teachers, and with such a quick transition period in the first year, we did not stipulate that teachers were required to construct their own video content. However, this is something we have subsequently encouraged, though we also feel that it is unnecessary for teachers to compose all of their own resources. In a digital age where we see educators sharing their practice and resources more freely, I think it would be a retrograde step to expect teachers to work in isolation. The advice we give to our teachers is that if you can’t improve upon the video that you have found online, then why would we use our limited time to recreate something.
Some have tried to suggest that a lesson cannot be considered ‘flipped’ if video media is not involved in the delivery of content for the homework students complete prior to the lesson. I would argue that this is a very narrow understanding of this approach. It is clear that subjects like mathematics, which are generally process oriented, might lend themselves to instruction through the medium of video. However, other subjects such as English and History, I would argue, are better serviced with a mixed-media approach to presenting homework. These disciplines, among others, are based on engagement with and interpretation of the written word. Video media is a great supplement to such texts and can lead students to a deeper understanding of the concepts addressed. I think this is a more realistic approach to Flipped Learning and one that acknowledges the nuances of different disciples.
Application time in class
One of our earliest mistakes with scaling the Flipped Classroom was the use of class time. Out teachers lacked the confidence in the flipped process in ensuring our students arrived to our classes with a foundational understanding of the content. As a result, many of our teachers were using a majority of class time to re-teach content already covered during the homework. This became apparent when we surveyed our students. There was a general sense of frustration at being required to sit through a very teacher-centred exposition of content already covered. We used this data to realign our practices and to promote the suggestion that no more than 20% of class time be used to recap content and that the majority of class time.
Hybridised Flipped/Problem Based Learning Model
In 2010, following the introduction of Project Based Learning in the junior years, we introduced a school-wide Problem Based Learning approach for Year 11 Preliminary HSC students. In this model, students were challenged with a problem to solve at the beginning of the day and then worked collaboratively to solve the problem throughout the day, presenting their solution for critique at the conclusion of the day. This approach was based on the One Day One Problem model introduced at Republic Polytechnic, Singapore.
What we found after a number of years of implementation was that students struggled to go deep with the content with this structure, as we were not adequately activating their prior knowledge. Students were exposed to important content and concepts prior to engaging with the problem itself, but we struggled to find the time to go deep enough with this content to prepare students thoroughly for the problem.
We also found that the presentations at the end of the one-day of problem solving session were often rushed and lacking in thoughtful preparation and rehearsal. We wanted to provide students with the time to think more critically about their presentation prior to the presentation.
In order to address these concerns, in 2016, we remodelled the structure of our One Day One Problem approach to introduce a Flipped Learning component and to provide reflection time for students prior to their presentation. Within a two-week cycle of learning students will meet as a class for four specific sessions which are outlined below and which are represented in the diagram.
Session 1 -100 minute lesson – Content Flip
Students introduced to new content via a flipped lesson.
Lesson time spent clarifying misunderstandings and applying the content.
Session 2 – 200 minute lesson – Problem Release and Problem Solving
Students are introduced to a challenging problem
Students spend 200 minutes working collaboratively to solve the problem.
Homework is for students to work collaboratively outside of school hours synchronously and asynchronously.
Students spend around an hour presenting their solution to the problem and critiquing one another’s presentations.
Teachers then had an opportunity to provide explicit feedback and to present an exemplar solution to the problem.
Session 4 – 50 minute lesson – Test and Application
Students then work collaboratively on HSC style questions at higher levels of Bloom’s taxonomy, refining their understanding of the concepts and content addressed through the problem.
We’ve found that this approach has allowed students to engage with the problem more quickly and to access the problem at deeper levels than we had found before. We also found that the quality of student presentations improved as our students were able to spend significant time reflecting on their solution and rehearsing their presentations.
Improving HSC Results: One Measure of School Improvement
One measure of school effectiveness is performance in the Higher School Certificate examination. While this is only one of many methods to determine student achievement, it is one that is easily tracked over time.
Since the introduction of the Flipped Classroom at Parramatta Marist High in 2013, we have seen a significant improvement in student HSC performance. In the HSC students are placed into achievement bands based upon their overall performance in each subject. These bands are represented below.
80% – 89%
70% – 79%
60% – 69%
50% – 59%
Since the introduction of the Flipped Classroom in 2013, we have seen the percentage of students achieving in the top two bands combined (Band 5 and 6) steadily increase from 48% in 2012 (prior to the Flipped Classroom’s introduction) to 63% in 2015.
Prior to Flipped Classroom
First Flipped Classroom Cohort
Second Flipped Classroom Cohort
Third Flipped Classroom Cohort
% Band 5 & 6 Combined
Performance in the lower bands is perhaps more pleasing. In 2012 17 precent of courses achieved were the lowest three bands (Bands 1, 2 an 3). Between 2013 and 2015, we saw this percentage decrease to 5%, with no students receiving results in Bands 1 or 2.
Prior to Flipped Classroom
First Flipped Classroom Cohort
Second Flipped Classroom Cohort
Third Flipped Classroom Cohort
% Band 1,2 & 3 Combined
While it is very difficult to attribute such improvements to any particular intervention or strategy, our feeling is that the introduction and refinement of the Flipped Classroom has had a significant impact on these results.
Flipped Classroom: Developing an Instrument to Measure Student Perceptions
As a part of Parramatta Marist High’s PhD program through Erasmus University, Rotterdam, under the supervision of PhD Promotor, Prof. Henk. G. Schmidt, I have been undertaking research into student perceptions of the Flipped Classroom. This research has taken the form of an attempt to develop an instrument to measure student perceptions of this pedagogical approach, as no such instrument currently exists.
A study of the literature and our own experiences with the Flipped Classroom led to the development of a 48-item survey instrument that sought to measure 9 distinct aspects or ‘domains’ of this approach. The survey was administered to 136 senior students and we were able to determine the reliability of the survey instrument using test-retest reliability coefficient and Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient. Moreover, student responses were strongly supportive of the Flipped Classroom. Students generally enjoyed learning in this model and they felt that this approach helped them to learn when compared to more traditional approaches. A paper entitled ‘Student Perceptions of the Flipped Classroom: Reliability and Validity of an Instrument’ has been written and is in the process of being peer-reviewed.
The next phase of the research is to administer the survey to a greater number of students from more diverse populations. This will then allow us to determine the validity of the instrument through structural equation modelling and factor analyses. In turn, this will help to determine that the questions measure what they were designed to measure and it will help us to further explore the relationships between question items within domains as well as the relationships between the domains themselves. From this, a more comprehensive understanding of student perception of the Flipped Classroom can be achieved.
Since the Flipped Classroom was introduced at Parramatta Marist in 2013, we have seen some significant changes. Our experience has led to a refining of our Flipped Classroom structure to design a model that fosters best practice while providing teachers with flexibility to use their professional judgment in regards to its implementation. The Hybridised/Flipped Classroom model we developed has afforded us more time to ensure our students can engage with the problems at a deeper level as well as ensuring a higher standard of collaborative problem-solution presentations. The introduction of the Flipped Classroom has also had a positive impact on our HSC results with both results improving both in the higher bands as well as the lower bands. Our research into student perceptions of the Flipped Classroom has also confirmed that students acknowledge the benefits of the Flipped Classroom and they feel that this approach prepares them very well for the rigours of the HSC examination.
A blog post from my team teacher Maddie Cleveringa of a Yr 9 History and English integrated PBL project we facilitated with Shamaine Jacobs, Toni Sheehan and Clinton Rodoreda. We are very proud of the work our students did in this project.
This year I have been making a concerted effort to create and alter projects to make them more authentic by focusing on establishing adult connections between students in the classroom and the worl…
We know that in our context, we consistently produce what we would consider very ‘good‘ PBL projects, many of which exhibit elements of ‘greatness‘. We were hoping that by engaging with this resource, we could shift some of our ‘good‘ projects to being ‘great‘ projects.
I thought a good way to examine some elements of Gold Standard PBL would be through some examples from a current Year 9 integrated History and English Project: The Shadows of the Shoah. This project saw students challenged to construct an interactive museum exhibit to highlight how one historical personality was affected by their experiences in the Holocaust. While this is a good project, there are still some aspects of the project that we can improve and so I thought I would discuss only 2 the Buck Institute’s revised 8 Essential Elements of PBL; Public Audience (which I’ve extended to include broader adult connections) and student Voice and Choice.
PBL experiences can connect them with experts and learning experiences they might otherwise miss. Larmer, Mergendoller & Boss, 2015
Project Based Learning provides us with unique opportunities to engage our students in meaningful real-world situations, connecting them with expertise in the field to support their learning and provide feedback.
For The Shadows of the Shoah, we launched our project with a lecture from an external expert. Dr Jan Lanicek from the University of New South Wales was kind enough to offer his time to provide a 40 minute lecture to pour students, introducing the Second World War and the Holocaust in general. Dr Lanicek is an historian who specialises in and has written extensively on this aspect of history. Although Dr Lanicek was unable to be physically present for the session, due to his schedule at the university, we managed to FaceTime him in to the students in our theatre.
Dr Lanicek was able to pitch the lecture at the student level and provide them with some excellent resources to start their project journey. It was a great experience and added weight to the task the students were asked to undertake.
Below is a short video of the lecture:
Another external connection we fostered throughout the project was with Museum Victoria. We connected with the museum education team who were able to share some very relevant resources on the role of museum curators and the construction of museum exhibitions.
Jan Malloy, Cam Hocking and Liz Suda were excellent contacts throughout the project. Their advice in terms of project design was indispensable and the resources they suggested we use were terrific and supported the students effectively throughout the project.
This connection culminated with a skype session with Liz Suda and Cam Hocking. Although technical difficulties meant that not all students were able to attend this session, the students involved found the opportunity to ask questions of the curators very beneficial. Liz was able to respond to all of the student’s questions with relevant examples from their own museum. The team were also kind enough to record the session for us so we could ensure all students had the opportunity to benefit from the session.
Below is a short clip from our hour long session with Liz and Cam.
Below is a short student reflection from a student involved in the museum Skype.
Another adult connection we were able to make was with the Auschwitz Memorial in Poland. Maddie Cleveringa, my team teacher for this project made this connection through Twitter and asked if there was a possibility of skyping our students in. Pawel Sawicki, one of their museum educators, was a terrific contact and was open to the possibility of a live skype; something they had never tried before!
Due to the time difference between Australia and Poland, we needed to organise the Skype for after school one afternoon. A large number of boys stayed behind after school to be a part of the experience.
This was such a powerful experience for our students and a reminder of how technology has become an important tool in bridging gaps and making connections. Having our students ask questions of Pawel as he walked them around the site was amazing. Being taken into the gas chambers at Auschwitz I, shown the barbed wire fences and having Pawel stand beneath the famous sign “Arbeit Macht Frei”, “Work Sets One Free” was truly a unique experience.
Student Voice and Choice
‘Some are concerned about controlling the classroom and planning every minute, so conducting a project with student voice and choice just seem too ‘messy’ and fraught with uncertainty’ Larmer, Mergendoller & Boss, 2015
Student voice and choice is such an important aspect of Project Based Learning. Although providing these opportunities can be fraught with challenges (more on that later), the benefits for the students far outweigh these limitations.
For our Holocaust project, we sought to provide a number of opportunities for students to provide their own voice and make their own choices.
Students had some ownership over:
Their team members for the project
The personality they chose to research
The style of narrative they produced
The structure of their museum exhibit
The artifacts they produced
One of the benefits of allowing students freedom of choice is that their end products are unique and more of a representation of the student, rather than being simply a ‘paint by numbers’ or ‘cookie cutter’ style of end product.
Cognitive dissonance can also be fostered through the provision of opportunities for students to make choices. When we ask students to direct their own learning throughout a project, this can cause friction within and between groups as students put forth ideas and challenge one another’s opinions in seeking to come to a consensus. These are unique learning opportunities for our students who we hope can take these skills forward into new situations when they leave our classrooms. This is well summed up by Larmer, Mergendoller and Boss.
‘Faced with a challenging problem or question, students must be able to exercise judgment and make decisions about how to resolve it. Otherwise the project becomes an exercise, a set of directions to follow.’ Larmer, Mergendoller & Boss, 2015
Below we have some students discussing the challenges they faced wit the choices they needed to make throughout the project.
Intrinsic motivation is also fostered when we provide opportunities for students to make decisions about their learning. Larmer, Mergendoller and Boss also make this point very clear:
In terms of motivation, giving students an opportunity to express their own ideas and opinions and make choices during project work validates the basic drives of autonomy and competence, and contributes to intrinsicmotivation (Brophy, 2013). Larmer, Mergendoller & Boss, 2015
Below we have some students discussing the choices they made throughout the project and how this led to a sense of motivation:
The End Product
The work students produced in their end product was very impressive. The variety that excited in terms of the presentation of their museum exhibits was a testament to the choices they were afforded throughout the project. The quality of the work that was produced can be attributed in many respects to the opportunities students had to engage with experts globally.
This was such an enjoyable project to facilitate and our boys gained a great deal from the experiences they shared throughout the project.
I’ll put together another blog post soon with some examples of student work.